Where the Principal sits in the vehicle
Where his vehicle is in a convoy
One car drills – convoy procedures
Vehicle ambushes – Carjacking
I have seen the disappointment CP student’s faces when they learn that defensive driving isn’t throwing a car around and doing flip turns. It is in fact a style of road driving that keeps you away from other people’s problems. It’s an intelligent approach to driving that not only helps you keep your Principal alive, but ensures he arrives at a destination relaxed and having hardly noticed the journey. Not only that, defensive driving helps you save fuel, brakes, tyres and, if you drive for a living, your sanity! Defensive driving is what we do every time we travel upon the public roads; we ‘defend’ the space around our vehicle.
Basic driving skills
Most drivers think they are a better driver than everyone else, but if that is the case where did all those bad drivers come from! Almost all traffic accidents are entirely due to human error and are mostly due to unsafe driving practices or negligence.
Almost a third of all accidents are rear end shunts, and you wouldn’t be the first escort driver to shunt the Principal during a moment’s loss of concentration. Many accidents are the result of driving too close to the vehicle in front, which is a problem for us because very often while escorting a Principal a driver will remain quite close so that no other vehicle can jump in between the escort and the Principal.
What makes you a good driver?
A good driver oozes confidence; he handles the vehicle efficiently and effectively. The ride is smooth, with the driver and vehicle operating as one, with skilful and effortless use of the controls.
The driver will have excellent observational skills coupled with the ability to remain alert throughout even the longest of drives.
He will be constantly and actively be scanning through 360 degrees, matching his vehicle’s speed to the road conditions and the situation. He will have a highly developed sense of hazard awareness. He will display an excellent attitude to other road users.
Contrary to what we believe, we are not all good drivers. Some people are drawn into this aspect of Close Protection and they excel in it. However, all Close Protection Officers should be able to drive, and officers without a driving licence should obtain one as soon as they can. All officers should know about the basics of defensive and evasive driving. You never know when you may have to take charge of a vehicle in an emergency. For example, maybe because of some administration mess up you’re the only driver on shift today! So even if driving is not your strong point, learn the basics and practise them because you just don’t know when you might need them.
Close Protection drivers
Very good Close Protection drivers are a rare breed. They need to have all the skills and attributes of a good Close Protection Officer, but they also need to be highly skilled drivers, capable of handling their vehicle right to the very limit of its performance and be safe and reliable, even when under extreme pressure. They need to make very quick decisions often under stress. They need to be cool and calm and not hesitate to show aggression should it become necessary. There is no room in Close Protection for a reckless or cavalier driver; the job is just too important. What makes these drivers so rare is that when someone has all of these attributes the very last thing they want is to be stuck behind the wheel of a car. They want to be out there with the Principal at the sharp end and the driving job be taken up by someone else, even though they might be less competent than they are.
Because the driving aspect of Close Protection is often ignored by the elite officers, this job is often taken up by less capable individuals. Some Principals have dedicated drivers that are not even Close Protection trained; they are employed purely because of their navigational knowledge of the city in which they are employed and that they do not mind wearing a grey peaked cap!
Many might look at a Close Protection driver and see a glorified taxi driver; this is especially so when the driver is 70 lbs overweight and seems to always be eating. I have come across quite a few of these. Often they are only still in the job because they have become a ‘friend’ to the Principal or his family. What is often not realised is that a fit and switched on driver really can save lives. They can use the vehicle to evade danger and use it as a weapon to attack a threat head on.
Driver training is very important and ideally the training will be carried out in the regular vehicle, except of course, when this is impractical such as when ramming practice is taking place! However it cannot be stressed enough that a slick manoeuvre that you can do in an old Ford with a manual gearbox and bald tyres will be a lot harder to do in your regular car with tyres designed to hold the road and on regular road widths rather than airfield size training areas. Good driver training is hard to find. Ask around, someone who comes highly recommended by an independent referee has to better than a driving school even if it has got a flash web site.
Most people want to learn all of the fancy moves and turns, but they are much better employed learning how to become a good driver. You must be a good driver first. Advanced driving courses, e.g. those run by organisations like the Institute of Advanced Motorists are indispensable. Only when you are an advanced driver should your start practising all of the Close Protection modules such as evasive manoeuvres, ramming and high speed driving.
Where should the Principal sit in the car?
Some might say that he is at liberty to sit anywhere he likes, and some Principals do, ignoring all sensible advice. Some Principals may insist on driving themselves, and this is more common than you might imagine. While this is not the best situation you may well have to run with it and compromise. Ideally, when being driven, the Principal should sit in the rear seat behind the front passenger seat which will ideally be occupied by the Bodyguard. Though sometimes the Bodyguard is forced to travel in a backup car, all he can do then is to stay as close as is safe to be in a following vehicle. All doors should be locked immediately after the Principal is in the vehicle and strict observance of the ‘230’ rule should be observed with regard to windows. The ‘2/30’ rule states:
‘No windows will be open more than two inches
when the vehicle is travelling under 30mph.’
If you are working with a threat level that demands an armoured car then open windows. Even if your AC isn’t working your windows should remain closed at all times. If you were stopped suddenly in an ambush, even a window open one inch would render all that armour useless when the muzzle of a weapon is pushed through it!
There have always been two camps with regard to the wearing of seat belts. Both camps have always agreed that the Principal should always wear a seat belt; and this practise should be positively encouraged. Drivers are often briefed not to release the handbrake until the Principal has belted up.
It has been the wearing of a belt by the Bodyguard that has always been a contentious issue, with one camp saying that the BG should always wear the belt, often quoting the first Principal of personal security, “Everyone is responsible for their own security” The other camp insists that because the Bodyguard may have to react very quickly and dive into the rear to give bodycover to the Principal, then the belt may well slow him down.
I must admit that over the years I have spent time in both camps and sometimes had a foot in each. However the death of the Princess of Wales who was not wearing a seat belt and the survival of her Bodyguard who was, should leave no-one in doubt that the Bodyguard should be belted in, as well as urging that the Principal is too. It is the law in many countries and states that belts must be worn, and this can help us when we have to gently insist that our Principal wears the belt.
One car drills
The Close Protection Officer will frequently find that he is on his own, sometimes even driving the vehicle. Having no backup to rely on means that your route planning, navigation, and timings must be meticulous. It is extremely important that the driver is extra vigilant at all times, as he can expect no assistance should he have a puncture, traffic accident or drive into an ambush. He should always observe the speed limit and never violate the local traffic laws. He should position himself at all times so that he is afforded the best view ahead and should use the rear view mirror extensively.
Some convoys are seemingly ridiculous! A recent trip to the UK by President G. W. Bush resulted in a twenty-five vehicle convoy and this was not counting outriders! I doubt that many civilian protection officers get to ride in protective convoys that big. The convoy, even if it only consists of the Principal’s vehicle and one escort vehicle, is the preferred way to travel. Not only are we safer when we are attacked, but things that might occur on our journey, such as engine failure, puncture or an accident are all better dealt with if we have an extra vehicle.
Where should the Principal be in the convoy?
If the Principal is employing a PES and they have a backup car they should always travel behind the Principal’s car, as this is the best position to take defensive measures should the convoy come under attack. If attacked from the rear they are already there. If attacked from the flanks they can quickly overtake or undertake to place themselves between the threat and the Principal’s car. If the attack comes from the front then they can overtake and take the threat on from the front. So, in a two vehicle convoy the Principal will always be in the front vehicle. Some might argue that he should travel in the rear every now and again to keep the bad guys guessing, but this is wrong. The escort vehicle is severely hampered in its responses to attacks should they come from anywhere other than the front. In a three-car convoy, the Principal can be in car 1 with the escort in 2 and 3, or position 2 with the escort in 1 and 3. In a four-car convoy, the Principal could be in any of the first three cars.
Two car drills
The most common protection convoy consists of just two vehicles. For the reasons stated earlier, the Principal will be in the lead vehicle with the escort section behind. The lead vehicle driver always has to be aware of the following escort vehicle. He will never pull into a line of traffic if there is not room for both him and his escort. Likewise, he will only cross lights when he is sure that there is enough time before the lights change for the escort to pass them.
When an escort vehicle driver trusts the lead vehicle driver, he will always follow. If the Principal’s vehicle is turning right then the escort will always go with him, often only looking at the offside traffic, knowing that the other driver wouldn’t have gone without it being clear on the nearside.
The lead vehicle must ensure that he positions himself with regard to giving the escort section good visibility of the road ahead. This means that he will be at a different position on bends and junctions to if he were a single vehicle with no escort. At junctions he will position himself so as to make it easier for the escort section to provide cover for them. This cover is both from live traffic or an attack of some kind.
At junctions the Personal Escort Section provide bodycover. Whilst the escort will be constantly alert for surveillance and ambushes, their primary concern will be to protect the Principal from other road users. The risk of being hurt by Joe Public in a car is probably greater than any other threat. The risk of collision is greatest at junctions and it is here that the escort team will work hard to protect their charge. The diagrams that follow assume you are in the UK. If you are in a location where you drive on the ‘wrong side’ of the road then just reverse the instruction directions.
The Principal’s vehicle will pull over to the nearside as much as possible. The Escort vehicle will come up on the off-side, even if this does mean crossing the centre line.
The Principal’s driver must drive for both vehicles, only pulling out into traffic when he is sure that there is enough room for both vehicles to effect their drills
To carry out the right turn effectively the Principal’s vehicle will move to the centre line or may even straddle it if it is safe to do so. This will hopefully leave enough room for the escort vehicle to come through on the nearside to protect from the joining traffic which is now on the left. It is imperative that the Principal’s driver anticipates how much space and time is needed for both vehicles to complete the turn.
On large roundabouts these drills can be a little like ballroom dancing with all the lane changing. The aim is to keep the escorts bonnet/hood almost level with the Principals door, and then stay between him and the danger. This will mean changing lanes as the diagrams below show. On really busy roads these drills are all but impossible and the best thing to do is just stay as close to the Principal as possible.
Motorways are relatively safe roads to travel on. The speeds can make it difficult to mount a rolling ambush and because all the vehicles are travelling in the same direction then the chances of collision are vastly reduced.
The main danger comes from erratic changes of lanes, and vehicles being too close. Because of the high speeds it is conceivable that if you were run off the road then the result could be catastrophic.
Depending on how busy the motorway is, the best way to travel is on or a fraction above the speed limit (road conditions permitting) with the Principal occupying the centre lane with the escort just behind in the fast lane. The escort vehicle will be stopping people overtaking long enough to check them out and satisfy themselves that the over taker is not about to commence a rolling ambush.
You need to be thick-skinned, slowing people up on the road will get a few fingers raised in your direction, and some people will undertake and come up on the inside of the Principal. If you want to keep the profile lower then you can just travel directly behind the Principal but still keep an eye on every over-taker.
Great care need to be taken when you enter the motorway, the escort section should provide cover to the Principal as he enters the first lane and then accelerates quickly into the centre lane.
Ambushes and attacks
If the solo vehicle or a convoy comes under attack then the priorities are the same as any other time we need to ACE it out of the danger area. There are a number of drills that we can practise for different situations. Practising for when you come under an attack is important, but it is paramount that the training is kept realistic. It is amazing how many people driver train by throwing a car around an old airfield or racetrack. The cars that the training is carried out in are usually old wrecks, normally with manual gearboxes, and almost always much smaller and lighter than the vehicle in which you would be driving with your Principal, which may come under attack. The tyres on the training vehicle may have no tread; the vehicle will probably not have ABS braking. The training areas will often be much, wider than the road that you will be ambushed.
All training must be realistic, so even though learning the basics in the old banger is sensible, as much as possible your training and all of your continuation training should be done in the vehicles that you will be using everyday on the job. I appreciate that you will not use your Principal’s Bentley for ramming practice! But you should whenever possible practise things like emergency braking, high speed steering, and high speed reversing in the car your going to be in when you need the skills.
Different types of Ambush.
Of course not all ambushes are the same. There are different types of ambush for different targets, and the area will be a big factor when someone chooses to ambush you. But essentially the ambush will either be static or rolling.
This type of ambush relies on your stopping or moving very slowly through the killing zone, or the use of overwhelming fire power explosives from stationary positions as you pass through the killing zone. The attackers might create their own roadblock by placing a truck or cars across your path, or they might create other hazards such as attacking you where you naturally slow down or stop, such as level crossings, traffic lights and roundabouts. They could also use deception to halt or slow down your vehicle. Posing as police officers or feigning a road accident are both popular methods.
This is an ambush that happens on the move. It can be as simple as being overtaken by a motorcycle with a pillion passenger emptying a machine gun in your direction. You are unlikely to be attacked in this way if you are in an armoured car, as the small calibre machine gun fire will bounce off. However, the rocket-propelled grenades will have been fired from motorcycles and these may well defeat your armour. These drive-by shootings are fast and give you no time to react, but if you do get time then often the best weapon against a motorcycle is your car. Use it aggressively.
You could be hemmed in by ambusher’s vehicles while they shoot at you. This could happen on any type of road from a country lane to a speeding autobahn. At high speed they will try to run you off the road as well as shoot at you. This rolling ambush will probably not cease if you stop the vehicle so you must stay mobile at all costs.
If the persons ambushing you are professionals with all the resources and time that they need, then surviving in the killing zone of this well-planned and executed ambush is going to be extremely difficult and highly unlikely. However, your attackers may have to compromise in many ways.
They may not have the required amount of men or weapons to make the ambush completely effective. They need committed men that are dedicated and disciplined to carry out the attack and they need overwhelming fire-power to ensurethe success of the attack.
They may not have the time on the street that they would ideally need to set up the attack. This is especially true of back-stops that might stop you reversing out of the killing zone and cover all avenues of escape.
They might not be able to choose the ideal ambush site with care because it is difficult to pre-empt your movements as well as avoiding the attention of the police or other members of the public. The attackers will want to have an escape route for themselves; the route that they keep open for themselves might make an escape option for you.
If you ever find yourself in an ambush situation then you need to exploit any weaknesses in the ambush and of course you need to do this very quickly.
Always expect a secondary attack. Whatever evasive action you take in an ambush may have been second-guessed by your attackers. You should always expect another attack is imminent.
The protection of the Principal is of course your primary concern. At the first sign of anything hostile the Principal must be put into the footwell of the vehicle. You can put him there physically or just with your voice. If he has spotted the hostiles he might be there already! The Bodyguard must get in the back of the vehicle. Some Close Protection training schools teach that if the vehicle is armoured then the Bodyguard does not have to get in the back with the Principal – this is wrong. The Bodyguard’s job is to be in the back with the Principal. If you have to debus under fire, to escape on foot or to change vehicles, you need to be as close to the Principal as possible. So at the first sign of anything happening get in the back with the Principal and get his head down.
There are three things that will assist you in surviving a roadside ambush.
1. Spotting the Ambush Early
2. Not Stopping in the Killing zone
3. Using armoured vehicles
Spotting the ambush early
The earlier that we can spot an ambush, the more chance we have of carrying out any evasive action. Drivers and all team members must remain vigilant at all times, noticing the ambush just a few seconds earlier than the ambushers anticipate you might can make all of the difference.
Not stopping in the killing zone.
Standing and fighting is to be avoided at all costs. The attackers, even the most poorly trained ones, will ensure that they have better cover than you! You should always try to stay moving, that is, moving through or away from the killing zone.
Using Armoured Cars
Even in the most poorly planned and implemented ambush the odds are well stacked in the attackers’ favour. The use of an armoured vehicle can most definitely be a life-saver.
Counter ambush techniques
The only way to survive an attack is to get out of the killing zone. There is no right or wrong way; you have to base your decision on how you see the situation. Essentially, you will have just three options:
Continue moving forward to and through the ambush; you may have seen a way through or consider that ramming is an option (more on ramming later). You need to get the car moving and keep it going as long as you can. Your vehicle is the best weapon that you have. Many people when faced with a traumatic situation such as an ambush hit the brakes instinctively; even if this is the wrong thing to do.
Move left or right to avoid the ambush. Is there a way out by doing the unexpected, such as crossing a carriageway or driving off the road?
Reverse out of the killing zone or rapidly turn around and travel out the same way you came. This requires some skill and will depend upon how much room you have to manoeuvre. Even if there is no room to turn the vehicle, those that have practised their reversing skills will know that even going backwards cars can accelerate away at great speed. Some cars can go as fast in reverse as they can in second, but only if you have practised in them.
Principal’s car out of action
If the ambush puts the Principal’s car out of action, then a decision must be made quickly about evacuating him. Even if the Principal’s car is armoured, the killing zone is no place to be unless you know that help is imminent. Moving the Principal is a difficult enough drill without being shot at. You will have to rely on the cover that your escort vehicle can provide; speed as well as returning as much fire as possible. All of the occupants of the Principal’s car will get into the escort vehicle. If there is more than one escort vehicle then that is one more engine block between your Principal and his attackers.
Fighting your way out
As a last resort you may well have to abandon the vehicles and make a run for it. If the ambushers have done their job well you will probably not escape, but for the reasons mentioned earlier this may well be a way out. The team should use the vehicles to provide as much cover as possible. The car occupants should debus under this cover, provide bodycover for the Principal and get out of the killing zone as fast as possible, returning fire if possible. The conventional response to an ambush that you cannot get away from is to counter attack. The PES cannot effectively attack an ambush unless they have sufficient numbers and weapons. If they are forced to attack then it is at a time when the need for bodycover is paramount. For this reason if you are in a situation where an ambush is likely to occur then you should have extra personnel with you specifically tasked for counter ambush. These men will have their own vehicle and have suitable weapons. They will remain close behind the convoy but far enough away to not get caught in the ambush. This will allow the PES to do there job and provide bodycover and evacuate.
The truth about ramming that no Close Protection school or book tells you is that you cannot ram effectively with today’s modern cars fitted with airbags. If you ram the vehicle with sufficient force to move it then you run the risk of the airbags deploying which will immediately immobilise the vehicle. In the case of custom armoured vehicles you should consider disarming the airbags if you feel that you are more likely to ram your way out of a situation than need the bags for the protection they were designed for.
Ramming really is a life or death option. What you choose to ram must be movable. A large truck or a tree felled across a road cannot be rammed. You will just damage your vehicle and be a sitting duck right there in the killing zone. However, very often a roadblock is hastily put into place with perhaps one or two cars blocking the carriageway. A last resort action would be to ram your way through the makeshift barricade.
Slow down as if to stop, get in to first gear and then accelerate hard. Hold the vehicle in gear as when you make contact it may pop out of gear, which could be disastrous. Where you ram the other vehicle/s and with what part of your vehicle are critical. You need to ram the attackers’ front or rear wheel. This is a solid area, which will give you the shove you need. If you are moving too slowly you risk not moving the vehicle, but if you are moving too quickly you risk damaging your vehicle. Do not forget that the car is an excellent weapon and if you can run down anyone on the way through an ambush then you should not waste this opportunity.
Ramming is something that you must practise; you must get a feel for it, learning the power and speed needed. You will probably find it easier than you imagine as well as being a lot of fun. During practice you will also notice how easy it is to get hooked up and trapped with the vehicle you are ramming, especially if you hit them broadside. Ramming will seem easy without all the adrenalin you will have in a real ambush situation. Modern cars with polystyrene and collapsible plastic bumpers make entanglement less likely, especially if you hit the target’s wheel arches.
Dukes of Hazzard style driving away from an ambush
No Close Protection course would be complete without a day on the skidpan learning how to throw a vehicle around. The value of this training is suspect but can be great fun. To be of any real use the training should be carried out in the actual vehicles that you use on a daily basis. It really is no use practising your drills with slick tyres on a skid pan only to find out at the worst possible time that you or your car doesn’t cope with the manoeuvre. But that said when ‘learning’ the skills you do not want to be using expensive vehicles unless you have hired them.
You can buy some scrap cars or better still hire some cars from the large car hire firms. You can easily trash tyres on these cars so if you are going to be doing a lot of learning then it is best to buy a cheap set of wheels and tyres and swap these as soon as you get to your training area. Learn the handbrake/bootleggers turn first this is the easiest to master and will give you the confidence to progress.
The Handbrake (Bootlegger’s) Turn
If you are fortunate enough notice the ambush a few hundred yards ahead then a handbrake turn can quickly reverse your direction of travel away from the ambush. The turn is a controlled skid and the possibility of the turn going high is high. Lots of practice will enable you to recover quickly from the problems of poorly executed manoeuvres.
This can be done in both auto and manual vehicles, manual is easiest and your Principals car is very likely to be automatic rather than manual!
The vehicle needs to be travelling at around 25 to 30 mph
Come of the accelerator and positively turn the steering wheel to the right about half a full turn, at the same time as you turn the wheel apply the handbrake hard. If you are driving a manual you must depress the clutch now or you will stall, you need to also select 1st or 2nd (after a practice you will know what works best) gear but keep the clutch engaged.
When you are about 90 degrees into your turn release the handbrake and hit the accelerator and straighten out facing the way you came. If in a manual you will let out the clutch as soon as you hit the accelerator. If you get everything right you should enter a controlled skid and end up in the opposite lane. Steer away as fast as you can.
With some cars It is easier to initiate the turn by initially applying a flick of the steering wheel in the opposite direction, before violently turning it back into the required direction,
The ‘J’ (Moonshiner’s)Turn
This looks like a handbrake turn in reverse, it allows you to quickly turn 180 degrees within the confines of a two lane road. If you find the road is blocked and you come to a stop, this reverse out when quickly engaged, can get you to safety fast.
Engage reverse and accelerate hard in a straight line, this is harder than it looks and must be practised. You will be surprised at how fast most cars can travel in reverse, but after around 4 seconds you will be flat out and to go faster you need to change direction so you can use the faster forward gears, so as the engine screams that it cant go faster prepare to do several things all at once.
While the car is still moving in reverse, turn the steering wheel hard to the right (or left if you drive on the right) while simultaneously engaging the handbrake. Do not touch the accelerator. The car should spin at least 90 to 180°.
You will find yourself facing either 90 or 180 degrees from the ambush. Release the handbrake and get in second gear (first is best for some cars) or get it into low drive if you are in an automatic. Then accelerate away.
You might think that the last person a robber would steal a car from is a Bodyguard, but it happens, especially in one-on-one situations when the Bodyguard has no backup. The Bodyguard may well find himself driving a very desirable car and some people will go to great lengths to steal it. Carjacking is normally done at gunpoint or knife-point. It is a violent crime, very much on the increase in the USA and Europe. The reasons for the popularity of carjacking may well have something to do with the ever more sophisticated alarms and immobilisers that manufacturers install in their new luxury vehicles. This makes it harder for the crook to steal so when he does want to steal the car it is much better for him if he can steal the keys as well and carjacking achieves this aim.
While many luxury cars are stolen to order, some carjackers may well just do it for kicks: the nicer the car the more kudos the thief achieves. There is no set pattern to carjacks and while most will happen at night, they can occur at any time of day. Carjacked on the way to work is a common occurrence in some cities.
If drugs and weapons are involved in the carjack then there is a high chance of violence being used at the first sign of any resistance unless the attacker is heavily under the influence of drugs, then he will probably have as must adrenaline as the victim. However you feel, it is just not worth risking you or your Principal’s life for a car that will be replaced by the insurance company anyway. As soon as you have given up the car get yourself and the Principal, if he is with you, away from the area as quickly as possible. You will feel bad about it and you might beat yourself up about it for a long time after but you must remind yourself that by not offering any resistance you were doing the right thing.
Mostly carjackers are opportunists; you just do not give them the opportunity to rob you of your vehicle. You are most vulnerable at traffic lights and stop signs as well as car parks and your own driveway.
The ‘bump and rob’
A common carjack scenario starts with you being gently rear ended. If you are suckered into getting out of the vehicle, then you could be robbed at gunpoint or someone may just jump in the car and steal it. This would be a disaster if the Principal was still in it! If someone gives you a little shunt and you are going to get out make sure you know what you are getting out into. The best policy is to ignore small rear ends. Just try to get a note of the vehicle index. If they follow you then lead them straight into a populated area or better still a police station or military barracks.
Getting in the car
If the vehicle has been parked where the public can see it then it may well have been targeted by carjackers. As you approach the vehicle make sure you pay particular notice to anyone who may be lurking. Have your keys ready, walk purposely to the vehicle, get in and immediately lock the doors, pull away as quickly as you can, and look for a tail.
Make sure that you observe the 230 rule and always lock your doors. Whenever you’re coming to a stop, whether that be a traffic light or a body in the road, always leave yourself enough room to manoeuvre past the obstacle. Never, ever, let yourself be hemmed in. In cities, try to drive in the centre lane away from the pavements. If approached by anyone tapping on a side window when you are stopped or slow moving, ignore it, act as if you can’t hear it and move.
Getting out of the car
Always have a good look around you as you approach the place you are about to park. Well-lit areas where there are other people are much better places than side streets. If you use car parks, try to use ones where there are security officers. No matter where you park always have a good look around before you unlock the door to get out.
Advice for you and your Principal
If your Principal is one of the many that like to get out on their own and drive themselves, you must make sure that they are aware of carjacking and how it occurs and what they can do to prevent it.
The specialist driver will be an expert at defensive and evasive driving. He will always conduct continuation training in his work day vehicles or as similar vehicle as possible. To attempt the evasive turns requires considerable skill and their success depends on many things such as the width of the roads that the ambush is mounted, the road surface, the type of vehicle, whether it is front or rear wheel drive, auto or manual, and of course the skill of the driver. Unless you are looking after someone with considerable threats against their life then the biggest danger on the road will come from other road users. Patient defensive driving is the only weapon that you can use to protect yourself. Finally do not forget that the vehicle is probably the deadliest weapon that you have on the team, just like any other weapon if it is handled incorrectly you can kill your colleagues with it but handled correctly and used as a weapon you can save lives with it.